埠頭 pho 1-thau: means the city, in the ancient Greek "polis", (in Mandarin: 城市) when this word use in the name of a city, it would be "埠 pho", such as "Sit-lat Pho 1" means the "Singapore city". Sometimes, we speak the word, "外埠頭 goa-pho-thau", (the other city) or this popular words, "埠頭 錢， 埠頭 用。 pho-thau chiⁿ, pho-thau eng". (money earn in this city, it just enough for the spend in this city.)
>呂宋 ly7-song3 is Luzon island, may be generalized to mean the Philippines.
Yes, "Luzon" is indicate the Luzon island before the Spanish colonization, because there were some kingdoms, the Luzon was one of them.In the books of Ming dynasty, they indicated the Luzon as an island or a kingdom. But after the colonization, the Spaniard gave a new name, "the Philippines" to include these kingdoms of Luzon, Sulu and ect. Hence the Hokkieners used the Luzon to mean the new name of "the Philippines".
>占婆 ciam1-po5 should be Champa
You are right. Champa
>番爿 huan1-pin5 in our usage refers not only to Indonesia but including other part of SE Asia.
There was a popular proverb, "俗語 siok-gu" about the "Lu-song 呂宋 and Hoan-ping 番爿", I heard from the old persons in my child time.
『呂宋 山嶼 千千外， 番爿 山嶼 萬萬外。』
"Lu-song suaⁿ-su chhuiⁿ-chhuiⁿ-goa, Hoan-ping suaⁿ-su ban-ban-goa."
It means the Philippines have the islands more than thousands, and the Indonesia have the islands more than ten thousands.
There was an old song before 1900, "過番歌 ke-hoan-koa, (the song of crossing to oversea countries)" about the living societies of oversea Hokkieners. I heard from the old persons of E-mng 厦門, Tang-oaⁿ 同峖, Lam-oaⁿ 南峖 and An-kue 安溪, they travelled or lived in these places before the second war world. I forgot the contents of this old song, and I just recall some pieces.
This song was an "oral litherature". I wish there have someome who had the chance to hear this song from the old persons. He can record it and post this old song in the forum.
『第一 叻力 牛, 第二 台灣 牛。
呂宋 金山， 番爿 銀山。』
"te-it Sit-lat gu, te-li Tai-oan gu.
Lu-song kim-suaⁿ, Hoan-ping gun-suaⁿ."
It means the people in Malaysia firstly, and the Taiwan secondly, they needed to work as the cow, who gave out their work and received money more less . (may be the economic activities of these two places, controlled under some groups of people, or some big companies?) The Lu-song and Hoan-ping were the hill of gold and the hill of silver. (in these two places, people could be easily have the chance to build their own small business?)
In this song, there had four places: 1). Sit-lat, 2). Tai-oan, 3). Lu-song and 4). Hoan-ping. I find that Malaysia and the Philippines were not included in the place of Hoan-ping, hence the Hoan-ping just means the Indonesia.
The Indonesia existed some kingdoms in the past time, they had their own state names, old Hokkien called the names of these kingdoms. And after the colonization, these kingdoms all under controlled by the Dutchman. I guess, the Hokkieners used the Hoan-ping to name those lost kingdoms or the place of new Dutch Indonesia.
Lu-song 呂宋 Bin-li-la 岷里獵 Lap-bau 納卯 Sap-bu 霎霧 Pa-lo-oan 巴[竹/老]灣
Mang-kun-taⁿ-noo 網巾礁荖 (in old E-mng, Lam-oaⁿ, An-kue) Mang-kun-taⁿ-lo 網巾礁荖: Mindanao (in Mandarin: 岷答那峩)
Sit-lat 實力 Sit-lat-pho 實力埠 Pin-ling-su 檳榔嶼
An-lam 安南 Chiam-po 占婆
Hoan-ping 番爿 Ka-lau-pa 加留吧 "Se-li-an 西里安: Irian Jaya (Mandarin: 伊里安 查亞 yi-ni-an cha-yia)"
Sien-na-ngan 仙那眼 "Niuc: Did yoy know where is this place of Indonesia?"
Chiam-la 占臘: Cambodia (Mandarin: 柬埔寨 zhian-pu-zhai)
Bin-tien 緬甸: Burma (Mandarin: 緬甸 min-dien)
These geographic names I heard from my grandparent in child time. They lived in the Penang. When the old persons talked with the Hokkieners from other places of the South East Asia, they always speaking these native vocabularies. I never heard those loan words of Mandarin geographic names in the conversations between them.
Ko-le 高麗 Sin-lo 新羅
Liu-kiu 琉球 (in English: Ryukyu) Tiong-san 中山
An-ping 安平 Tai-ka-la 大佳獵 Chui-tng-kha 水轉骹 Kue-lang 鷄籠 Chu-lo 諸羅 Taⁿ-kau 打狗, or Ki-au 旗後 (in Mandarin: 高雄)
These place names, I heard from some old man, they were sailors after the second world war visiting these places. They always used these native words in their conversation. When I talked with them in those lond words of Mandarin, they always telled me its place names in native Hokkien.
This word exist in the speaking of story-tellers "講古仙 kong-goo-sien", they talked the stories, the legends, the adventures, etc., in the public places at the old time. In E-mng, Singapore, Penang and Taiwan had these places at the past days. I heard some stories about the battle between the "Tong 唐" and the "Ko-ku-le 高句麗" from the old man. The old Hokkien gave a very comfortable feeling for me when I was hearing of these stories, legends and adventures. But I had forget the vocabularies of them now.
Hong, and Niuc,
Would you hope to restore the native "Hokkien Language (Lan-lang-oe)"?
or, would you hope to remain the Mandarin-fashioned "Min-nan Dialect"?
The native vocabularies is the spirit of a language and it can preserve the "concepts, ideas, thinking, feeling, living, history, culture of this speaking people" and other benefits. I wish to share my Hokkien speaking experience happening in my child time, with the other Hokkieners and the Hokkien speaking fabvourers. I also wish the native speakers to keep their own native vocabularies and deny those loan words, unless those "loan words with its meanings" in the Hokkien language were not existed native words in it.
In my experience, the speaking in the generration of our grandparents is very different with us, especially in their vocabularies. Our grandparents said the native "Hokkien Language (Lan-lang-oe)", but we talk the Mandarin-fashioned "Min-nan Dialect". The reason is the Hokkien Language that was prohibited in the educational system and the public media.