Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Discussions on the Hokkien (Minnan) language.
Iāu-jîn
Posts: 1
Joined: Fri Apr 04, 2014 12:09 am

Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby Iāu-jîn » Fri Apr 04, 2014 2:37 am

Tāi-ke hó!

Guá sī Hô-lân lâi ê Tâi-gí ha̍k-sing, sénn Pôo (蒲) miâ kiò-tsò Iāu-jîn (耀仁). Guá tī tsia kán-ná í-king ū nn̄g ê pîng-iú, lóng ū khǹg guá lâi tsia tsham-ka. Sóo-í gōo la̍k gue̍h í-lâi guá ū-sî lâi khuànn lín tī tsia lóng teh kóng siánn-mi̍h, m̄-koh kàu hiān-tsāi it-ti̍t lóng bô siá ka-kī ê ì-kiàn. He póo-kî-lo̍k sī ín-uī guá tsai-iánn ê sû kap jī bô kàu tsē, tuì Tâi-gí ê liáu-kái mā sī kāng-khuán. Sui-bóng án-ne, m̄-koh tsit-má guá iá-sī lâi ka-kī siá-māi.
Hioh-jua̍h liáu-āu guá beh khì Tâi-uân lâm-pōo tsng-kha tsi̍t ê sóo-tsai, tī hia ū tshuē-tio̍h tsi̍t ê ka-tîng guān-ì hōo guá tuà kuí ê lé-pài, o̍h Tâi-gí. Hi-bāng tsit kài ki-huē ē-tàng kā guá tàu-sann-kāng!
Siá ê nā ū sóo-tsāi siá m̄-tio̍h, hi-bāng ū lâng ē-sái kā guá tàu-sann-kang -- tshiánn tsí-kàu.

Iāu-jîn

Hi everybody,

My name is Joren Pronk (TW: Pôo Iāu-jîn) and I am Dutch student of Taiwanese. Two friends of mine have asked me on multiple occasions to join the discussions here at the Minnanese forum, but since my Taiwanese is still very much on an elementary level in skills as well as in knowledge about the language, I haven't done that until now. I have come here from time to time to read through the posts though.
This summer I am planning on going to a little village in the countryside of southern Taiwan to live with a family there and try to learn Taiwanese in a real life environment, so I hope that will be of much help!
If you see any mistakes in my Taiwanese (or my English for that matter), please by all means feel free to correct them!

Joren Pronk (Iāu-jîn)

Abun
Posts: 115
Joined: Fri Jun 21, 2013 4:15 pm

Re: Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby Abun » Sun Apr 20, 2014 12:58 pm

Iāu-jîn lí hó!

Guá ioh lí tō sĩ Sim bat kóng--tio̍h--ê pîng-iú--honnh? Huan-gîng lâi tsia tsham-ka^^

Guá sènn Pâng (馮), kiò Si̍p-bûn (習文), sóo-í tĩ-leh tsia tsū-tshing tsò A-bûn. Bīn-tsîng guá tĩ Tik-kok Ko-thîng-kin (Göttingen) leh tsìn-hîng hàn-ha̍k (漢學) si̍k-sũ ha̍k-sip, tshut-gia̍p lūn-bûn ǹg-bāng thang siá kuan-î Tâi-gí gí-giân-ha̍k--ê tāi-tsì. Guá kah lí kâng-khuán, o̍h Tâi-gí iá bô hiah kú (tāi-iok tsi̍t-nî puànn)--ah, lí nā ũ khuànn tsuè-kīn kuí kó-gue̍h--ê post, guá ioh lí tō ing-kai iã ũ huat-hiān guá-ê būn-tê tiānn-tiānn sĩ khan-liân siong-tong kann-tan ki-pún--ê tāi-tsì xD

Lí bueh khì Tâi-uân tsng-kha tuà kuí lé-pài guá kám-kak tsiok tsán--ooh. Guá mã sĩ phah-sǹg jua̍h-thinn khì Tâi-uân liû-ha̍k puànn-nî (guá nā-sĩ kah lí kâng-khuán ẽ-tàng tshuē--tio̍h kóng Tâi-gí--ê tshù thang tuà tsin-tsiànn ũ-kàu hó--ah, m̃-koh kì-jiân sĩ Tâi-pak tshĩ-khu guá ioh khó-lîng-sìng bô tuā). Huâinn-ti̍t, bô tiānn-tio̍h lán ẽ tī Tâi-uân sio-tú--ê xD

Iū-koh kā lí kóng tsit siann huan-gîng.

A-bûn


Hi Joren,

I’m guessing you’re the friend Sim mentionend before? :D A warm welcome to the forum from me!
My Taiwanese name is Pâng Si̍p-bûn (馮習文), so I decided to call myself Abun here. I’m currently doing my master in Chinese studies at Göttingen University in Germany and am hoping to be able and write my thesis on something related to Hokkien linguistics. Just like you, I haven’t been studying Hokkien for very long (a year and a half approximately); if you read the recent posts you will probably have noticed my questions to be usually about rather basic stuff xD

Going to live at the Taiwanese countryside for a few weeks is a great idea! I’m planning to go to Taiwan for half a year starting from this summer, too, would be great to find a place to live where people speak Taiwanese (however considering it will be Taipei City, I’m guessing the possibility is not very high).

Anyways, possibly see you in Taiwan then and welcome again.

Abun

beh.oh.tai.uan.ue
Posts: 5
Joined: Sun Jan 12, 2014 7:17 am

Re: Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby beh.oh.tai.uan.ue » Tue Apr 22, 2014 6:46 pm

歡迎汝~ 看來汝台語已經足好e呢 攏佇佗位學的呢?
阿文啊我佮汝講喔 台北嘛有足濟的儂咧講台語 免驚
猶毋閣台灣南方的儂當然講台語足濟 親像阮e這个少年儂嘛有足濟愛講台語的 (其實南頭嘛袂歹)
佇台北,嘛有少年儂會曉講台語的,毋閣著已經毋是大多數e呢 唉 真可惜

Glad to see you on board, welcome
I think going to southern TW for a time is a great plan for learning tai-gi (one that I have considered myself).
Keep up the good work. I myself have quite a lot of ground to cover, but am doing what I can.

台灣見吧~

--Colin

Abun
Posts: 115
Joined: Fri Jun 21, 2013 4:15 pm

Re: Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby Abun » Sun Apr 27, 2014 2:12 am

Colin:

嗯 我知,舊年去台灣過年的時,我佇咧朋友厝內蹛兩禮拜,彼个朋友就是甲阿媽阿姑做伙蹛,兩位序大就是講閩南語。毋過我若想看覓,我的朋友啥人佇咧厝內講台語,啥人講「國語」,帶佇台北角勢的親像干焦有彼一位講台語,其他的攏講「國語」(我嘛掠準,若準講彼位毋是佮阿媽做伙蹛,伊嘛袂講國語的)。按呢南爿來的朋友咧,雖然並北爿的少,但是厝內講台語的煞足濟(佮台北朋友比起來),予我感覺南爿實在會講著較濟的台語。這當然毋是講北爿完全毋講,尤其是佇咧庄跤、細座城市,毋過佮南爿比起來親像講佮較少一點仔。可惜是可惜,現實就是按呢喔... 橫直,我會去揣看覓,若是揣著會當講著台語的所在通蹛就會足歡喜,若是揣袂著就無法度啦,愛揣別人來練習^^

yeah, I know. When I was in Taiwan last year around New Year's, I stayed at a friend's place for two weeks. That friend lives with her a-má and a-koo and the two elders speak Hokkien most of the time. But if I think about who of my friends speaks Taiwanese at home and who speaks "kok-gí", that one is probably the only friend from the Taipei area who speaks Taiwanese at home (and I guess, if it weren't for her a-má, she'd be speaking "kok-gí", too). As for the friends from the South, the overall number is somewhat smaller but the number of people who speak Taiwanese at home is a lot higher, still. So my experience confirms the impressions of most people that Southerners tend to speak Taiwanese more than Northerners. That of course doesn't mean Northerners don't speak it at all, especially in the countryside and smaller towns, but on average not as much as in the South. We may find that that's a pity, but that's just the way it seems to be... Anyways, I'll look for a place where I can use my Taiwanese. If I find one, it's great, but if not, there's not much I can do about it, besides looking for other people to practice on^^

Regards
Abun

amhoanna
Posts: 912
Joined: Sat Sep 18, 2010 12:43 pm

Re: Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby amhoanna » Tue May 13, 2014 6:37 pm

Hoan-gêng, hoan-gêng.

Tâioân lâmpōu ê cngkha o̍h Tâigứ, ciâⁿ sek-ha̍p.

aBûn, "嗯、我知" = "un, góa cai"? 8)

Abun
Posts: 115
Joined: Fri Jun 21, 2013 4:15 pm

Re: Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby Abun » Tue May 13, 2014 10:54 pm

amhoanna wrote:aBûn, "嗯、我知" = "un, góa cai"? 8)

Góa it-poaⁿ ē kā chit-ê 嗯 jī hoat-im chò "ngh" ah "mh". M̄-chai Tâi-gí kám mā ē iōng chit-ê jī, tān-sī góa io̍h chit-khoán--ê hoat-im eng-kai sī ū--ê, sī-m̄? Chiok ki-pún--ê chit-ê sû (sui-jiân ta̍k chióng gí-giân ê iōng-hoat bô kâng-khoán).

amhoanna
Posts: 912
Joined: Sat Sep 18, 2010 12:43 pm

Re: Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby amhoanna » Thu May 15, 2014 7:37 pm

Cit khoán "iōnggí" sī cin kē tòo tio̍h katī ê búgí ê énghióng--ê--lah. Góa teh kóng Tâigí ê sî sī kóng "hm̀".

Ca "Jūhông tián" (台語白話小辞典), i ū siu hm̄, hn̄g, hngh. Bô m̄ tio̍h, góa ū ci̍t ê pêng'iú ē kóng "hn̄g-hn̄g, hn̄g-hn̄g", koh ū "piàntiāu"--leh.

Ah góa ê ìsù sī, ciong "ngh" siá cò 嗯, ce sī Kōaⁿōe ê si̍pkoàn, lán teh siá Bânlâm bûn bētàng ánneⁿ siá--lah.

Abun
Posts: 115
Joined: Fri Jun 21, 2013 4:15 pm

Re: Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby Abun » Fri May 23, 2014 10:02 pm

amhoanna wrote:Ah góa ê ìsù sī, ciong "ngh" siá cò 嗯, ce sī Kōaⁿōe ê si̍pkoàn, lán teh siá Bânlâm bûn bētàng ánneⁿ siá--lah.

Án-ne lí kám-kak ài siá-chò siáⁿ-mih hàn-jī? Kì góa só͘ chai, Ji̍t-gí, Hân-gí lóng bē siá hàn-jī, siá うん kap 응; Kńg-tang-gí, Oa̍t-lâm-gí góa tō m̄-chai. Jî-chhiáⁿ, 嗯 jī sī chioh 恩 ê im, mā tō-sī kóng "un", kah "hm̀" chiok chiap-kīn. Khó-lêng siá-chò 唔 mā ē-tàng--tit, tān-sī chit-ê jī sī lâi-chū 吾 (ngô͘) jī, góa kám-kak siuⁿ hn̄g--ah. Nā-sī kan-taⁿ siūⁿ-tio̍h Bân-lâm-gí, khó-lêng 呣 (姆: ḿ) ah 响 (向: ǹg), 咉 (央: ng) iā bē-bái, m̄-koh khióng-kiaⁿ ē chō-sêng gō͘-kái, iû-kî sī thâu-chêng nn̄g-ê jī tī Kńg-tang-gí, Pak-hng-gí chiok siâng-iōng, ì-sù soah oân-choân bô kâng-khoán. Lí it-poaⁿ ē án-nóa siá?

amhoanna
Posts: 912
Joined: Sat Sep 18, 2010 12:43 pm

Re: Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby amhoanna » Sun May 25, 2014 5:54 pm

Siá 呣 góa ciok cànsêng, góa māⁿ ū ánneⁿ siá--ê. Lán m̄ bián kā Tionghoa-gí cioh jī.

嗯 jī sī chioh 恩 ê im, mā tō-sī kóng "un", kah "hm̀" chiok chiap-kīn.


Kám ū siongkīn?!

Nā-sī kan-taⁿ siūⁿ-tio̍h Bân-lâm-gí, khó-lêng 呣 (姆: ḿ) ah 响 (向: ǹg), 咉 (央: ng) iā bē-bái, m̄-koh khióng-kiaⁿ ē chō-sêng gō͘-kái, iû-kî sī thâu-chêng nn̄g-ê jī tī Kńg-tang-gí, Pak-hng-gí chiok siâng-iōng, ì-sù soah oân-choân bô kâng-khoán.


Bânlâm-gí hoân Bânlâm-gí, Kńgtang-ōe hoân Kńgtang-ōe.

Abun
Posts: 115
Joined: Fri Jun 21, 2013 4:15 pm

Re: Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby Abun » Wed Jun 04, 2014 4:48 pm

amhoanna wrote:
嗯 jī sī chioh 恩 ê im, mã tō-sĩ kóng "un", kah "hm̀" chiok chiap-kīn.


Kám ū siongkīn?!

Ũ sio-kĩn bô sio-kâng. Hoâiⁿ-ti̍t góa sĩ án-ne siũⁿ.

amhoanna wrote:
Nā-sī kan-taⁿ siūⁿ-tio̍h Bân-lâm-gí, khó-lêng 呣 (姆: ḿ) ah 响 (向: ǹg), 咉 (央: ng) iā bē-bái, m̄-koh khióng-kiaⁿ ē chō-sêng gō͘-kái, iû-kî sī thâu-chêng nn̄g-ê jī tī Kńg-tang-gí, Pak-hng-gí chiok siâng-iōng, ì-sù soah oân-choân bô kâng-khoán.


Bânlâm-gí hoân Bânlâm-gí, Kńgtang-ōe hoân Kńgtang-ōe.

He mã tio̍h. Ah-m̃-koh, lán tĩ-leh chioh jī ê sî, ũ--ê sĩ chioh-ì bô chioh-im, ũ--ê tian-tó sĩ chioh-im bô chioh-ì, góa kám-kak bô hiah it-tì-sèng(一致性). Góa pó-chèng, góa chìn-chêng kéng 嗯 jī lâi tāi-piáu "ǹg" im, "tio̍h" ì ê sî-chūn ũ khó-lī boeh án-nóa siá. Ah-m̃-koh góa siũⁿ-khí ê jī tû-liáu 嗯 í-gõa kan-taⁿ ũ téng-thâu só͘ kóng--tio̍h ê hit-kóa. Hit saⁿ-ê tō-sĩ ha̍p-im bô ha̍p-ì, 嗯 tō-sĩ ha̍p-ì, im sui-jiân bô 呣 hiah kĩn, ah mã ũ tsiap-kĩn, só͘-í góa tio̍h iōng hit-ê.
Last edited by Abun on Mon Jun 09, 2014 6:43 am, edited 1 time in total.

amhoanna
Posts: 912
Joined: Sat Sep 18, 2010 12:43 pm

Re: Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby amhoanna » Wed Jun 04, 2014 10:18 pm

Ah-m̃-koh, lán tĩ-leh chioh jī ê sî, ũ--ê sĩ chioh-ì bô chioh-im, ũ--ê tian-tó sĩ chioh-im bô chioh-ì, góa kám-kak bô hiah it-tì-sèng(一致性).


同意。

不こ(m̄ kò)照我想、閩南文「借意」基本上干な(kannaⁿ)借漢文正妥当、不通直直借廣東文中華文日本語。ち点(cit tiám)拍算㑑無同意。

Make no mistake, 我所講兮「漢文」= 傳統书面漢文、無包括「官話文」。

Literary Chinese is a "canonical" language for Hoklo, a 長輩 if U will; not a mother or father tongue so much as an uncle or an aunt. Mandarin is not all that. Mandarin is from "the same generation". I don't reject Mando-borrowings categorically, but most do seem unjustified. Nor do I condone borrowing "唔" from Canto.

Also: not "ū--ê", but "ū-ê". I made the same mistake for 15+ yrs and was corrected specifically by "the natives".


嗯 tō-sĩ ha̍p-ì, im sui-jiân bô 呣 hiah kĩn, ah mã ũ tsiap-kĩn, só͘-í góa tio̍h iōng hit-ê.


「嗯」字不通借、有二个理由。

第一、嗯字本底不是漢文、是官話文、創省卜借。

第二、嗯字本底是「擬聲辞」ひ款物、照意思來借無妥当、無「效率」、ま gâu 花。

Abun
Posts: 115
Joined: Fri Jun 21, 2013 4:15 pm

Re: Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby Abun » Tue Jun 10, 2014 6:53 pm

amhoanna wrote:不こ(m̄ kò)照我想、閩南文「借意」基本上干な(kannaⁿ)借漢文正妥当、不通直直借廣東文中華文日本語。ち点(cit tiám)拍算㑑無同意。

Make no mistake, 我所講兮「漢文」= 傳統书面漢文、無包括「官話文」。

Literary Chinese is a "canonical" language for Hoklo, a 長輩 if U will; not a mother or father tongue so much as an uncle or an aunt. Mandarin is not all that. Mandarin is from "the same generation". I don't reject Mando-borrowings categorically, but most do seem unjustified. Nor do I condone borrowing "唔" from Canto.

I AM 同意 :lol: And I'm glad to hear someone else address the problem that Classical Chinese is not, as many people seem to just assume, a direct parent language of Hokkien, not in the way Latin is for Italian or French. Anyways, the problem is, that interjections are rather rare in "漢文" writing; you've got 兮 but that's about the only one I can think of off the top of my head. Btw, I'm guessing your term "漢文" refers to 漢朝 rather than 漢族, meaning Han dynasty and earlier writings. If you go further on, there are of course more interjections to be found, especially in later imperial works such as novels like 紅樓夢, but these of course reflect a Northern Chinese language so borrowing these would hardly be more appropriate than borrowing characters from contemporary Mandarin. In his book about Written Taiwanese, Henning Klöter mentions Ming dynasty stage plays (especially one called 荔鏡記, 1566) in which some characters obviously speak dialects of Bân(閩); these may serve as a source for the spelling of interjections. However we have to ask ourselves to what extent the characters those plays use are influenced by indigenous character usages. I would tend to assume that this was only rarely the case and the writers rather used the current 官話 as a source for borrowings, so these characters may be only marginally better than using characters from 紅樓夢.

amhoanna wrote:Also: not "ū--ê", but "ū-ê". I made the same mistake for 15+ yrs and was corrected specifically by "the natives".

Oh, I wasn't aware of that. Thanks for correcting me.

amhoanna wrote:第一、嗯字本底不是漢文、是官話文、創省卜借。

True, it doesn't appear in Classical Chinese, and true, it was coined by Mandarin writers. I don't think that in itself makes it improper to borrow it, especially since the phoneticum 恩 is equally close to the sound ǹg or m̀ in both Hokkien and Mandarin, but it has been established that we have different views there :mrgreen: If Canto uses 唔, I would view that as just as proper or improper to borrow as Mandarin 嗯. My only problem with Canto borrowings is that I can not come up with them myself because I don't speak Canto :P

amhoanna wrote:第二、嗯字本底是「擬聲辞」ひ款物、照意思來借無妥当、無「效率」、ま gâu 花。

嗯 was originally only only the asking ńg (Pinyin) in Mandarin? I wasn't aware of that. How was the confirming ǹg originally represented then?

amhoanna
Posts: 912
Joined: Sat Sep 18, 2010 12:43 pm

Re: Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby amhoanna » Sun Jun 15, 2014 1:48 pm

嗯 was originally only only the asking ńg (Pinyin) in Mandarin? I wasn't aware of that. How was the confirming ǹg originally represented then?


Hmmmm....

What do mean by "originally"?

Anyways, the problem is, that interjections are rather rare in "漢文" writing; you've got 兮 but that's about the only one I can think of off the top of my head. Btw, I'm guessing your term "漢文" refers to 漢朝 rather than 漢族, meaning Han dynasty and earlier writings.


"漢文" may take on different meanings in different contexts, but I've never heard it used to refer to 漢 Era writings. What I meant was "Literary Chinese", basically what the 中華 establishment refers to as 文言文 (a term that does not seem to have been widespread pre-ROC; note the three-syllable structure, a common concession to Mandarin phonology). A lot of the Beng-Cheng novels were not Literary Chinese so much as Literary Mandarin.

For reasons most likely political, the 中華 establishment dislikes the word "漢文" and has removed it from education and the media in general.

Abun
Posts: 115
Joined: Fri Jun 21, 2013 4:15 pm

Re: Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby Abun » Sun Jun 15, 2014 3:34 pm

amhoanna wrote:What do mean by "originally"?

I was asking about the source you meant when saying 本底 earlier under your 第二.

amhoanna wrote:For reasons most likely political, the 中華 establishment dislikes the word "漢文" and has removed it from education and the media in general.

Ok, I hadn't heard about that... Who exactly do you bean by 中華 establishment? I have heard the word 文言(文) being used almost exclusively (albeit only in Mandarin) by people in both Mainland China and TW. So do you mean Singapore and Overseas Chinese?
I also think the trisyllabic 文言文 sounds a little odd and prefer the bisyllabic 文言, although you could argue that 看字面, this actually means spoken words in a literary style.

amhoanna wrote:"漢文" may take on different meanings in different contexts, but I've never heard it used to refer to 漢 Era writings. What I meant was "Literary Chinese", basically what the 中華 establishment refers to as 文言文 (a term that does not seem to have been widespread pre-ROC; note the three-syllable structure, a common concession to Mandarin phonology). A lot of the Beng-Cheng novels were not Literary Chinese so much as Literary Mandarin.

In this sense "漢文" is very diverse and not as uniform over the centuries as many people think. For example, in pre-Han sources, the verbal prefix 可 is always followed by a passive construction; 可知 for example was "can be known". It can therefore be induced that as a rule, 可 most likely changed the verb to passive voice, so that it could not have an object anymore (more accurately put, the verb lost one point in its valency, since ditransitive verbs like 謂 could still have an object, but only one instead of the normal two), so sentences 可知其是 (one can know it is true) would likely have been incorrect according to the rules of pre-Han written Chinese. If the verb was supposed to stay in active voice, you had to add an 以: 可以知其是. You can still see this construction today in expressions like 可愛(can be loved, 可憐 can be pitied ect.). In later works however, this rule is not strictly followed anymore.
Apart from grammatical changes the vocabulary also took in much influence from both the vernacular 官話s of the different dynasties as well as Sanskrit (especially in early Buddhist texts) and the languages of turkic tribes that conquered China (or parts of it). Due to a few 古文 movements since the late 1st century AD, this influence was of course much smaller than in the spoken languages, but it is nevertheless present, visible for example in the rising number of bisyllabic compounds as time progressed.
Therefore, I would tend to argue that the closer we come to the present, the smaller the amount of actual Han and pre-Han elements became (I choose these periods as a reference not because Chinese was "purer" then but because it was the ideal of 古文 purists). To use your family analogy, late imperial 漢文 would probably be more accurately described as a cousin who tried to emulate his father (Hokkien's uncle).

amhoanna
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Re: Tsū-ngóo kài-siāu

Postby amhoanna » Mon Jun 30, 2014 8:45 am

Who exactly do you bean by 中華 establishment?

I use the term very precisely indeed, so precisely that some people get mad. :lol: There are two political establishments that call themselves 中華. While they did not create the term, they popularized it; the term was pretty obscure before they picked it up. While they imply that the term has been widespread for thousands of years, that was clearly not the case if we read "classic" texts.

Both Tionghoas run their own systems of compulsory education. They also dominate the media -- completely, in the case of the PRC.

Keep in mind that for at least two generations already, nearly all formal Sinitic-language instruction outside of PRC/ROC territory has also been based on PRC or ROC curricula. When I was a kid (outside PRC/ROC), our kanji/Mandarin primers featured characters with names like 王大中. ... The great exception would be Hong Kong, till recently.

What do mean by "originally"?

How did the use of "嗯 = YES-GRUNT" originate?

It originated from the YES-GRUNT (in Mandarin speech) sounding kind of like Mandarin "恩". The YES-GRUNT doesn't have an actual -n final, but, close enough (in Mandarin), esp. considering how a lot of speakers drop -n finals, esp. in the Yangtze Valley and north of there, men too but esp. young women. But the point is that "嗯 = YES-GRUNT" was assigned purely on the basis of sound, and makes sense only strictly w/i the confines of Mandarin phonology. How U gon' go borrow something like that into Hokkien??


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